Month: July 2017

Scientists expect ‘significant’ algae bloom on Lake Erie

Scientists expect ‘significant’ algae bloom on Lake Erie

I consider the harmful forms of “significant” flowering algae in the western part of Lake Erie this summer, but probably will not be as large as a previous training that pose health hazards and hinder announced Thursday scientific tourism.

National partners in Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Research published their annual forecasts of algae for the lowest and hottest of the Great Lakes, where massive seaweed formations are a recurring threat to the environment and the economy.

Toxic pollution from blooming 2014 caused a two-day shutdown of tap water systems for 400 000 people in Toledo, Ohio and southeast Michigan.

“It’s going to be big, green, ugly and cause the same kind of problems you’ve had in the past to rent captains from boats trying to push people to fish,” said Don Scavia, a scientist at the University of Michigan .

It is unlikely to create another potable water crisis like there three years. This results from an unusual combination of factors, including high levels of toxins produced by flowering and its location near the floodwater water facility extracted from Toledo, said NOAA oceanographer Rick Stumpf. Surveillance has intensified since then and early detection devices have been installed, he added.

However, the situation emphasizes the need to reduce the flow of nutrients in the lake that feeds on algae and similar bacteria, mostly farms, as well as sewage treatment plants and other sources, Stumpf said.

The researchers developed a scale to evaluate the severity of a flowering as a function of the amount of algae in it over an extended period. They predict that this year will record a score of 7.5, although it can range from 6 to 9.5. A score greater than 5 indicates a potentially harmful level, which means that these flowers could damage the production of toxins or suck enough of oxygen in water to cause fish stains.

When the scale was developed, researchers estimate that the maximum score is equal to 10. A 2011 bloom has reached this mark and an explosion of 2015 has surpassed, registering a 10.5 recorded as the highest. It should be noted that the size of a flower may not reflect toxicity.

Flowering 2016 evaluated a slight 3.2, which has contributed to the dry climate. Spring and summer precipitation plays a key role in the formation of the flowering of manure washing the cultivated land in the streams and rivers that flow into the lake. Phosphorus in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure promotes the growth of algae.

The weather was significantly wetter this year, and the size of the flowering should reflect that.

Recent algal formations in the western part of Lake Erie took shape at the end of July and increased earlier than the beginning of August. A similar pattern is expected in the coming months.

“A flowering of this size is a proof that ongoing research and extension efforts to reduce nutrient loading, optimize water treatment and understand flowering dynamics must continue,” said Christopher Winslow, Ph.D. , Director of the Sea Grant College Program in Ohio.

However, he added that despite its previous size, “much of the lake will be free of algae throughout the flowering season and the lake remains a major asset.”

Michigan, Ohio and Ontario province of Canada agreed to reduce phosphorus in the lake by 40 percent over the next decade.

Month: July 2017

Looking Up: Many safe ways to see the solar eclipse

Looking Up: Many safe ways to see the solar eclipse

August 21, 2017, the sun will be partially eclipsed by the moon across the country; Just along a narrow path from one ocean to another, the sun was completely eclipsed.

For most of America, if special precautions are used to observe the sun safely appears as a crescent, because the invisible moon passes slowly in front.
The sun is too bright to look at directly without special precautions.

Looking at the unfiltered sun with binoculars or a telescope would be a blind person. Fortunately, using sunscreens or indirect means to view a projected image on a screen, we can review our star security conditions during the sunny day.

Without a telescope, you can use special sunscreens mounted on glasses frames. Several companies are selling in anticipation of the August eclipse. They are generally inexpensive.

You can search online and shop around for “eclipse vessels” or “eclipse shadows”.
Please note that glasses should only be used with eyes only. They are not safe for the intense focus of a telescope or even binoculars.

Special sunscreens are available on the front of the telescope or binoculars. Never use these filters in the eyepiece. The focused beams can split the filter and burn your retina!
On a sunny day, you can see the sun safely in different forms:
• With a hole in a closed window curtain, the sun was under a small image in the dark room, it can be taken on a white cardboard screen. This is a great way to see the crescent shape of the sun partially eclipsed on the day of the eclipse.

• Similarly, you can make a shoe box viewer with a hole in one end and a white screen in the other; The image will be very small.

• Another alternative is to capture a long cardboard tube that holds the packaging paper. Put a hole in the center of the lid. Replace the tube over your shoulder with the cap facing the sun, and back to the sun. Holds a white cardboard sheet at the open end of the tube, to see the solar image.

• Any small hole will. Try the next sunny day. Make a fist almost, leaving only a very narrow space; Sunlight can be placed directly on the palm of the other hand! Also look under a leafy tree. This is very surprising in a partial eclipse.

The hundreds of tiny holes left between the overlapping leaves projeteront hundreds of hollow cross on the ground! Tip: put a white sheet in the shaded grass for the best view.

• With a small round mirror or more, usually covered with a paper leaving a small round hole, it can reflect a clear image of the sun on a white screen (or a white wall) in a shaded area.

• Using a telescope or binoculars, you can safely pull an enlarged image of the sun on a white screen. Never use the small “search scope” to look through, to align with the sun.

Instead, adjust your telescope by observing the shadow of the tube; Once it becomes round, centered on the sun.

Month: July 2017

Hawaii featured in Netflix climate-change film

Hawaii featured in Netflix climate-change film

The documentary “Chasing Coral”, published today on Netflix, opens, appropriately, with coral formations of images of various shapes and sizes, all magnificent, loaded with a range of colors so vivid that it seems to pulsate.

Other formations are a uniform hybrid purple, green and gray. This is not the stealth stone nor do you wear camouflage. It is a dead coral. What is a problem.

The first voice we hear is the Richard Vevers sailing and long amateur sailing. He remembers the years he spent at an advertising agency in London, where he was good at his job, and how he believes what he was doing was trivial.

He decided to apply the communication skills he learned in his professional life to his passion and created a company that has studied the world’s oceans and created “virtual” dives using special cameras.

The story of a company man who left the business world to devote his energies to something more wonderful is not new.

But Vevers was alarmed by something in his new line of work: the “bleaching” of corals and subsequent death, a phenomenon driven by an increase of two degrees of water temperature.

The results are not only visually unpleasant, they are environmentally catastrophic.

Vevers was not the first to notice. A climate scientist, who warned the world of coral bleaching in the early 1990s, recalls how he was sent as an alarmist.

But Vevers was captured by the idea of documenting the phenomenon, which makes the film a suspenseful scientific story, as a team develops the necessary equipment and started on the reefs around the world to record damages.

If you are not educated in marine biology, you see a coral reef as an unusual form of plant life. This is not the case. This is animal life, and the film offers a simple explanation of how coral works.

Macro photography of coral polyps, including thousands exceeding any given coral formation, gives more fascinating images like anything in science fiction films. However, it is part of our real world.

In his explanation of how corals feed and how other forms of feeding marine life in or around coral, the film gives an understanding of how humans are also relying on coral.

We are aware of what is going to die. What is at stake is much more than an attractive attraction for dive tourists.

In the 2012 documentary “Chasing Ice” director Jeff Orlowski followed a National Geographic photographer on a project to document climate change affecting the Arctic glaciers.

Vevers puts in contact Orlowski, who agreed to make a film about the crisis of corals. With a similar title, “Chasing Coral” is a kind of “ice” sequel.

“We had not planned to do a series,” Orlowski said in a telephone interview.

“Doing ‘Chasing Ice’ really did wake me up to the urgency of the climate change problem, and this seemed like an opportunity to tell a new story, and one that looked very different….

Month: July 2017

The Sun’s ‘Quiet’ Regions Are Surprisingly Active

The Sun’s ‘Quiet’ Regions Are Surprisingly Active

Never judge a calm sun by its boring name. Much of the data from a NASA mission finds that the seemingly small active areas of the Sun are not as latent as the name might suggest.

Researchers in Wales have used data from NASA to examine the outer layer of the atmosphere in the form of the sun’s known solar corona.

The study of the solar corona is of great importance to understand what drives the solar cycle, which is a period of change in 11 years that the sun knows.

The crown can also tell us how it affects the cycle of sunlight and heat production, and how changes related to the cycle can affect the Earth.

The sun’s crown, which means “crown” in Latin and Spanish, consists of plumes of gas and plasma – and temperatures can reach as high as 3.5 million degrees Fahrenheit (2 million degrees Celsius).

Huw Morgan, a researcher at the University of Aberystwyth in Wales Prifysgol, spent many weeks to process seven years of coronal data.
He found that the silent sun – those parts of the crown that had low activity and no sunspots – tasted surprisingly warm temperatures. The new work was detailed today (July 14) in Advances Science magazine.

This image was created by combining 54 observations of the outer atmosphere of the sun, called the crown, in 2013. The horizontal bands above and below the equator are “activity belts” that start closer to poles and gradually move to more latitudes The annual solar cycle progresses. The dark areas are known as the quiet Sun name.

This image was created by combining 54 observations of the outer atmosphere of the sun, called the crown, in 2013.

The horizontal bands above and below the equator are “activity belts” that begin near the poles and gradually move to lower latitudes as the 11-year solar cycle progresses. The dark areas are known as the quiet Sun name.

Beyond the solar corona studies were largely limited to much smaller datasets regions or individuals, said Morgan

This study used data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) covering NASA from 2010 to 2017. The enormous amount of information that contributed to Morgan’s results was collected from instruments such as SDO imaging and Helioseismique magnetic magnetic (HMI), Experiment variability Extreme ultraviolet (EVE) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA).

“During the solar cycle, there is more activity, and we have more sunspots – and not a surprise,” said Morgan “This has been known for decades. But for me, this is what happens in what we call the quiet sun … it was interesting too.”
The prominences, the solar eruptions and the sunspots in the contest of great solar popularity; The attractive images that SDO features of these solar events are certainly indicative of a general public and scientific interest in them.

These characteristics are most common during the advanced stage of maximum solar cycle cycle change of 11 years. The new findings indicate that there is much to learn by studying periods of relative calm, known as the name of solar minimum.

“Active regions, sunspots have a lot of attention,” Morgan said. “But in reality they are only a small part of the whole sun.”

Month: July 2017

Climate scientists push back against catastrophic scenarios

Climate scientists push back against catastrophic scenarios

One of the challenges of the discussion on climate change is that it is really serious. Totally realistic projections of things such as rising sea level, loss of agricultural productivity, etc. Sometimes it may seem like a disaster movie.

This is a problem in two ways. The first is that people will naturally tend to reject any future outcome they will not believe it will happen.

The second is that, since their predictions are for very negative changes, the whole climate science was marked “alarmist.”

In fact, if you do a web search for “alarmist”, the first results are not basic definitions or the Brasserie Alarmist are all about climate change.

This week, however, we have received a number of indications that brand accusations of all weather science as the alarm simply is not true.

In response to some of the articles that were too pessimistic about our future, climate scientists have intervened to provide a more realistic perspective on our future.

Science vs. NY

During the weekend, New York magazine published an article entitled “The Unababitable Earth.” Its author, David Wallace-Wells, admitted that the figures that often speak in terms of future climates are generally the average of likely outcomes.

Although there is a possibility that things are not as bad as the center, there is also a good chance that they can be a bit worse. The premise of the article was to imagine if all possible outcomes for our planet were “pretty bad”.

The premise was clearly stated, so the article would obviously have a negative outlook. However, Wallace-Wells managed to have a number of things wrong.

For example, scientists recognize that the melting permafrost is likely to release carbon to the atmosphere. But our knowledge of what is still very uncertain.

To the most pessimistic point of view, however, it does not suggest that we are freed from all this, as suggested in “The Uninhabitable Earth”: “All this must be liberated on a date that continues to be moved upwards.”

Article mischaracterized the results of a recent review of temperature records because the warming occurs “more than twice as fast.” (For a more realistic decision, see our coverage).

He said that the minimum or best we can see by sea level rise is four feet by the end of the century (which is higher than the median of the IPCC projections).

The article even implies that warmer weather will promote the kind of genetic changes that have altered the symptoms of the Zika virus (it will not).

The response of climate scientists has been very negative. Michael Mann, a scientist who was often called an alarmist, has published an online review in which he observed some mistakes in fact Wallace-Wells.

However, in more general terms, he said: “The article says that climate change will make the Earth uninhabitable by the end of this century.

Other complaints were made by scientists such as Kevin Trenberth and Andrew Dessler.

It’s all academic

And scientists do not limit their backs to stories in the popular press. Almost a year ago, a researcher at Stanford University published an article that records a temperature record for two million years. It was then analyzed in a way that suggests that the climate sensitivity in carbon dioxide was almost triple

Month: July 2017

Are You Ready for the Great American Eclipse on August 21?

Are You Ready for the Great American Eclipse on August 21?

Here are the questions and answers from Eclipse
August 21, 2017, we will have the first total solar eclipse to hit the continental United States for almost 40 years. To help you prepare for the eclipse, I associated Xavier Jubier and Germine LLC to create an easy-to-use and completely free-of-charge that will tell you everything you need to know about the eclipse, including eclipse details (including exact times) for any place and sample Information and videos on eclipses in general. Simply download the free application by searching for “Big Science Kid Totality” (click to see a preview of video and links to app stores). And for a brief summary, read the Q & A below.

Q: Why do not I want to lose the eclipse?

A: Imagine the day suddenly becomes the night, although the sun is still high in the sky. For most of human history, such an event – a total solar eclipse – would certainly have been fear.

Today, however, we can predict the exact times and locations of centuries of complete solar eclipses in advance, which means there is more fear, just an impressive spectacle of nature.

For more information, see the video here, you can also find it in the Big Science Kid Totality application by pressing main menu (top left) -> Learning -> Eclipse 2017.

Q: Where can I see it?

A: All continental United States (in fact, all of North America and parts of South America) will see a partial solar eclipse on August 21, which is certainly worth witnessing. But it’s even cooler (by far!) To see the whole, because a day literally become night, the bright planets and stars visible in the sky.
To see the complete, you must be on the narrow path, side by side, which is shown in the following map of the whole by applying Big Science Kid. Use the application to find out what will be seen in your current location, or to plan a trip in the path of the whole.
The main application card. Use the triangle next to the date at the top to select maps for future eclipses.
Q: At what time will the August 21 eclipse appear?

A: It depends on where you are, then use the whole Big Child Application Science for exact hours as shown in the application screen example below.
Select a location to view the eclipse information. You can choose my location to use your current GPS location or the nearest Totality to find the closest location, which is on the axis of the entire path. Enter details for more information or instructions to open the map software to drive your selected location

A: Just as you do not look directly at the sun during the normal day, you should not look directly at the sun on the eclipse day either. However, there are many ways to observe the eclipse safely.

The simplest is the projection of the pin hole, in which you are planning a simple image of the sun through a hole in a cardboard sheet or rigid paper; You can find instructions and other options in the application by pressing the main menu (top left) -> Learning -> Insurance viewer.

But it is much more fun to be able to look at the sun, which is possible if you use special eclipse glasses, such as those used by the children in the photo below of the great astronomers organization without borders.

Month: July 2017

Are people and apes the only ones that can plan ahead? Quoth the raven ‘nevermore.’

Are people and apes the only ones that can plan ahead? Quoth the raven ‘nevermore.’

For centuries we have said that we are special – that what separates humans from animals is our ability to reason.

But this belief was undermined every time given the evidence that monkeys also have the intelligence to use tools, solve complex problems and even plan the future.

Now the ultimate indignity: Ravens can do it too.

In a rural research farm in Sweden, working with birds, raised breeders, cognitive zoologist Mathias Osvath recently taught five crows how to use a tool to open a puzzle type box with a treat.

He then laid his birds through a series of tests in which they had to choose the tool, despite the temptation in a much more immediate way with no place to box.

Birds do not bite. Only when they reduced the box would they use the tool they had saved for a better reward – which demonstrates self-control, reasoning and advanced planning.

“It’s not just the fact that they have these skills independently, but to use them together to make these complex decisions is what makes it so incredible,” said Osvath in Lund, Sweden.
He compared the calculations of his subjects to sophisticated as humans make decisions every day.

“Let’s just say you’re planning a trip to London, and you know how often it rains there.” So take an umbrella, even if it’s not raining wherever you are.This is what we’re talking about, based on past experience, “said M Osvath.

Their study – published Thursday in the journal Science – is the latest in a growing cognitive labor zoology tearing up assumptions about the limits of animal reasoning ability.

Some of the more recent work has been constructed in a study conducted in 2006 by researchers in Leipzig, Germany, which uses puzzling tests such as raven Osvath’s experience to show that monkeys could use tools and do planning.

However, scientists working with birds have long suspected that some winged creatures could match the intelligence of monkeys, especially ravens, crows and evil jays, members of the crow family.

Several studies have tried to measure and document the cognitive abilities of these birds, focusing mainly on their obsession to hide food.

Some have found that crows hid their food faster if they thought they were being watched. In other trials, scrud jets even moved their hidden food into a second place, once they realized they were being watched, in an apparent effort to avoid potential thieves.
Scientists Corvid, this behavior shows that some birds have a cognitive understanding of what others may know or intent and the ability to plan future consequences. Critics have overturned such conclusions, saying that the reaction of birds could be simple, instinctive responses to visual cues.

“It was a big argument because it was difficult for some to imagine that birds could do these things too,” said Thomas Bugnyar, a cognitive professor at the University of Vienna who has studied ravens for 20 years but who was not involved in the research Osvath. “People have continued to look for holes or other possible explanations.”

Month: July 2017

Teleportation: Photon particles today, humans tomorrow?

Teleportation: Photon particles today, humans tomorrow?

Chinese scientists say they have “teletransport” a photon from the ground to a satellite in orbit about 1,400 km (870 miles).

For many, however, teleportation evokes something much more exotic. A world previously confined to science fiction becomes reality?

Well, something like that. But we’re not going to be likely to happen to us in the office or on a beach in the Bahamas at any time. Excuse me.

How does it work?
In other words, teleportation transfers the state of a thing instead of sending the thing itself.

Some physicists give the example of a fax machine – information about marks is sent on a sheet of paper instead of the paper itself. The receiving machine obtains the information and applies it to the raw material in the form of paper that already exists.
Legend MediaChina teleports the Earth’s first object into orbit using quantum entanglement
This is not telecommuting in the direction of Star Trek – instantly transferring material from one place to another – that’s what you instinctively see.

Instead, it is based on a phenomenon known as a quantum entanglement name.
What the quantum entanglement?
Effectively. The phenomenon occurs when two particles are created at the same time and at the same time and therefore have the same existence.

This entanglement continues even as photons separate. This means that if one photon exchange, the other photon at the other location also changes.

Prof. Sandu Popescu of the University of Bristol, working on quantum entanglement since the 1990s.
“Even then, people thought of Star Trek.

But we’re talking about sending the state of a particle, not the billions of billion particles that make up a person, “he said.

“If you think of a distant planet, you should first exchange one billion pairs of interlaced particles, then you should also send other information, this is not trivial, you should not be excited by it.”

How to teleport a particle?
Back to our two intertwined particles. If a third particle interacts with the first entangled particle, the change that occurs in the entangled particle is reflected in its twin.

So the twin contains information about the third particle and actually takes its existence.
Sounds good, what’s the problem?

It was impossible to create a long-distance link between two interlaced particles, since an interlaced photon can travel 150 km from a fiber channel before being absorbed.

Researchers have long seen the potential of a satellite link, because photons can travel more easily into space, but it was difficult to traverse Earth’s atmosphere – variable climatic conditions can deflect particles.

Month: July 2017

NOAA Suspends Whale Rescue Efforts After Rescuer’s Death


NOAA Suspends Whale Rescue Efforts After Rescuer’s Death

Due to the accidental death of a veteran lifeguard in the Gulf of San Lorenzo on July 10, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) suspends whale rescue efforts until further notice.

Efforts rescue rescue whale entachoirs
The announcement on whale rescue work suspension occurs days after the death of Joe Howlett, a former fisherman and captain of the boat and co-founder of Campobello Whale Rescue Team.

On July 10, Howlett was on one of the “quick response” ships, trying to rescue a North Atlantic right whale that had become entangled in the fishing line off the coast of New Brunswick.

However, he was accidentally hit by the animal while swimming.

According to comrade Howlett Mackie Green, the whale turned right “Great Shift” after they have degenerated the net.

This is due to the nature of the accident that NOAA is supposed to be adequate to stop large whale coiled rescue efforts to examine its existing emergency response protocols.

It was the first recorded death in the community of people seeking to liberate the large whaling dismantling.

Risks of decommissioning efforts
Canada’s Minister of Fisheries and Oceans Dominic LeBlanc acknowledged Howlett’s contribution whales rescue efforts winded up while noting the risks and dangers.

“Mr. Howlett’s remarkable experience and contribution to the rescue of whales include his very new and critical role in the successful launch of a tangled whale July 5,” LeBlanc said.

“There are serious risks associated with any attempt to dismantle. Every situation is unique and enmeshed whales can be unpredictable.”

Howlett was an experienced lifeguard was able to use his years of experience as a lobster fisherman in his commitment to save entangled whales.

Prior to the NOAA announcement Green added that the whale movement was something Howlett likes and he would not have wanted team efforts to stop.

It should be noted that NOAA’s decision had to temporarily suspend large whale rescue effort simply to give the agency time to review its protocols when it comes to saving large whales from dismantling.

In addition, NOAA will continue efforts to save other endangered marine mammals during the suspension.

Free whales in the North Atlantic are a large species of whales registered as “threatened” in the Endangered Species Act and “depleted” in the Law on the Protection of Marine Mammals.

Most of the threats to the species are climate change, collisions with ships, entanglement in fishing nets, noise, habitat degradation, pollutants and disturbance of whale watching activities.

Month: July 2017

That huge iceberg should freak you out. Here’s why

That huge iceberg should freak you out. Here’s why

Probably know. It was on the Internet.
Among the details that have been repeated to the point of satiety:

The iceberg is about the size of Delaware, which sparked an amusing reflection on Twitter about where Delaware is exactly and how the whole world is supposed to approach the size of the American state.

The ice, which was named A68, representing more than 12% of the ice shelf Larsen C, a tape in the Antarctic Peninsula. And most importantly: none of this has anything to do with climate change is man.
The problem: this last detail – the weather – is misleading at best.

I spent most of Thursday on the phone with scientists, and communicating the huge iceberg in Antarctica and what it meant. Here are my five takeaways.
1. This is not seen as climate change.

There is no disagreement among climate scientists on the question of whether humans are warming the Earth by burning fossil fuels and polluting the atmosphere with greenhouse gases. We are. And we see the consequences.

But there is a problem as to whether there is enough evidence to link the breakdown of this particular piece of ice to global warming.

In a widely quoted statement, Martin O’Leary, a glaciologist at Swansea University, who was part of the Larsen C team, said that iceberg calving was “a natural event” and that “we do not know of any link to Humans – Caused climate change “.

Everyone does not agree with this assessment, however.
In 6000 square kilometers, the Larsen C ice sheet could be one of the largest icebergs ever built in the world.

Source: European Space Agency

“They see in it through a microscope” they see macro trends, including the fact that the oceans surrounding Antarctica are warming, which helps to lose weight from the ice, said Kevin Trenberth, a distinguished scientist in the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

“For me, it’s the unmistakable signature of the impact of climate change on Larsen C,” said Eric Rignot, glaciologist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at NASA and the University of California, Irvine.

“This is not a natural cycle, it is the system’s response to a warmer climate at the top and bottom, nothing else can cause this.”

Rignot said his colleagues would say otherwise in the head enfournent “on the ice.”
2. That being said, this s *** is complicated.
The difference of opinion arises, in part, to the lack of perceived data. Compared to other parts of the world, Antarctica is cold, strange, remote and difficult to study.

Some scientists say they do not have very long-term datasets they would need to demonstrate that the warming caused by humans affects this particular sheet of ice.
On the contrary, they can not refute the contribution of global warming either.

“I do not see clear evidence that it convinces me that this is climate change,” said Christopher Shuman, a research scientist at the Goddard Space Flight Center at NASA and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. “I think we have to wait and see. We must watch carefully and wait for the signs.”

If the Larsen C ice shelf continues to collapse, he said, we know that climate change has something to do with this week’s events.

Otherwise, his theory is confirmed, ie the iceberg is part of a natural cycle of childbirth and regeneration.